Saturday, November 10, 2007

1270 – 1315 Ars Antiqua

1270         Summa Theologica by St. Thomas Acquinas
1295         Marco Polo returned
1265-1321     Dante
1305         Papacy at Avignon
1315         Breakdown of French government


This is the last generation of the troubadours and trouvères, and the last generation of the Notre Dame school/Ars Antiqua style of motet. The first polyphonic ordinary was composed. In England was the Worcester Motet.





Lauda Sion Salvatorem, sequence for Corpus Christi, by St. Thomas Aquinas; Stabat Mater dolorosa, sequence for Good Friday, by Jacopone da Todi (c.1228-1306), was banned in 1563 and reauthorized in 1727.


Last troubadour


Guiraut Riquier (d. 1294) was the last troubadour.


Last trouvère


Adam de la Hale (c. 1240-87) wrote a pastourelle, Le Jeu de Robin et Marion, which included songs, a few of them polyphonic.



Petronian Motet


Petronian motet|French -- fast (crowded semibreves)—Triplum
|French -- modal—Motetus
|---------- slow—Tenor


Still French secular pieces in triple meter, there was greater contrast among the three voices: the tenor was still slower and the triplum faster. More and more semibreves were crowded into the space of a breve, up to as many as nine. Petrus de Cruce or Pierre de la Croix (fl. 1270-1300) was the outstanding composer.



Meaning "hiccup," hocket was a device of the 13th and 14th centuries where two voices rapidly alternated notes and rests; also a piece that used hocket.




The first polyphonic ordinary was the Messe de Tournai (c. 1300), a composite collection of unrelated sections.


Worcester motet


A school centered at Worcester Cathedral in England c. 1300 composed tropes of the ordinary, proper settings and Latin motets in a distinctive, conductus-like style which made extensive use of voice exchange and included passages of parallel sixth chords, anticipating fauxbourdon of the Burgundian period. (The English had earlier improvised parallel organum at the third, called gymel "twin", instead of the fourths preferred on the continent.) The tenor melodies were from the Sarum rite.




Anonymous IV (c. 1275), English theorist, described the Notre Dame School. De Speculatione Musicae (c. 1300) by Walter Odington discussed English music.

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